Healthier Yoga, Smarter Yoga With Dr. Bookspan

Jolie Bookspan, MEd, PhD, FAWM



Sometimes Yoga Isn't The Cure But The Illness -

Learn Healthier Yoga and Prevent Yoga Injuries




This is my Healthier Yoga Class syllabus, one page on my large no-charge web site My work as a research scientist is evidence-based physiology and sports medicine to fix back pain, neck pain, knee pain, other injuries, and to develop healthier training. Separately, I studied many kinds of yoga for years around the world, to learn and to separate what was helpful from what was tradition and wishful thinking. Scroll down to see the many interesting findings.

I also put fun stories on other pages on this web site of my lab research in environmental medicine of the human body in extremes of heat, cold, injury states, altitude, underwater, and different nutritional states. There are hundreds of articles for you on this site.

Navigation links (Site Map) to more fun articles and classes, and buttons to LIKE, TWEET, and SHARE, are at the bottom of this page and every page on this site.


We Do What Yoga Claims - Body and Mind - At The Same Time

If you are strong and brave--or want to be--come learn in this exhilarating, physical form of yoga. You'll use your brain for this often humorous fusion of tradition, sports medicine, and common sense.

Learn why many poses were never intended for health so it is no mystery when they injure. Many poses have origins in penance, in performance art for telling stories of war or devotion to deities or nature, for self-examination through self-punishment, are repeated out of tradition and dogma, and many reasons other than the health of your knees, back, and other physical parts. That is why "the right way" to do poses can often mean copying how the move is done for those other reasons, healthy or not. In my classes, instead of teaching you how to "do" a pose, I teach you how to use healthier positioning and body mechanics during each move, how to use that ability when moving from pose to pose, how to use the same healthy changes when you pick up your things to walk out of class, when moving around at home and work, when fixing meals, and for all you do.

Will yoga give you mindfulness and peace and focus and strength? No, it's not automatic from doing poses. We practice it deliberately during the poses, with specific understanding how to apply it to all you do the rest of the time.

The more you use this page to prepare for class, the more we can apply healthier changes in class, and go further, rather than start explaining everything from the beginning in class.

No previous yoga experience is needed to take my classes, only enthusiasm to think, learn, and make an effort. Advanced practitioners and instructors are welcome. Teacher training is also available. We build skill, confidence, strength, and ability of your body, mind, and spirit each week. Break down misconceptions and change injurious movement habits. Come ready to move, think, smile, fix bad habits, use great energy, then generate more.

See my Class page for locations and schedules, and how to apply for instructor training.


ALT =[“Students of Dr.Bookspan's Healthier Yoga classes. On Dr. Bookspan's web page of Healthier Yoga -]



What's On This Page

Click links below to open topics in a new window, or scroll down to see all


What is Taught



About The Teacher


Your Success Photos

Student Comments

Twitter Updates

When Yoga Injures

What About Props

Why Some Yoga Bends Are Unhealthy

Why Some Yoga Hurts Knees



Prevent Injuries

Karma Yoga Projects

Fix Pain Summaries

All Classes



Class Texts and other BOOKS by Dr. Bookspan

 ALT =[“Healthy Martial Arts by Dr. Jolie Bookspan”]        ALT =[“Fix Your Own Pain Without Drugs or Surgery by Dr. Jolie Bookspan”]     ALT =[“Stretching Smarter Stretching Healthier by Dr. Jolie Bookspan”]

 ALT =[“The Ab Revolution 4th Edition by Dr. Jolie Bookspan”]     ALT =[“Health and Fitness in Plain English - How To Be Healthy Happy and Fit For The Rest Of Your Life by Dr. Jolie Bookspan”]     ALT =[“Diving Physiology in Plain English - Blue Cover Edition by Dr. Jolie Bookspan”]

All available from the BOOKS page or at discount in class. Click the covers for info.



We Use The Brain as Much as The Body

As an instructor, I believed I was supposed to instruct - to teach. My yoga classes are taught, rather than a follow-along. New students often come expecting to only do specific gestures no matter how bad for their joints, and not have to think or learn health. They are surprised, some even angry - a yoga irony - especially when they are wearing expensive yoga apparel with printed maxims about love, understanding, or "openness."

These same people often come to my class because their doctor said yoga will fix their back or knee or foot pain. I see how they stand and move in injurious ways. I tell them how to easily spot and fix those things right then, so that we can start class using that knowledge while they move. They are angry (again). They don't see why I am talking when they are there to do the magic poses that will fix them. I explain once more that poses cannot fix them when they are moving their knees and back (and neck and so on) in obvious injury-causing bad angles and slouches. They are peeved, and say they know they have bad posture, and the yoga will fix it. Here is a secret: Yoga doesn't fix it. Read more to see what does:



What is Taught



Class Structure


Why We Stand Up For Part of Class Instead of Lying Down



What is the Difference Between My Beginner Yoga Class and My Advanced Yoga Class?


What benefit is doing contortions, and calling that "yoga for health,"
if those moves injure your joints or practice unhealthy bent-forward body position?

ALT =[“Students in another of Dr.Bookspan's Healthier Yoga classes. On Dr. Bookspan's web page of Healthier Yoga -]


On Oct 17, 2009, Yoga instructor Anya Muzychka wrote:

"Dearest Jolie, Oh my god, I finally see the light inside the tunnel.
Thank you so much for your most wonderful topics, advice and for all that you do! Thank you very much for SHARING this invaluable information. I was wondering why my yoga *didn't work* - and that's why I consciously STOPPED teaching it! Seeing that there is something missing - something is not quite right. I am hyper flexible (very loose joints - which I do not consider a blessing at all) myself - and what I found out recently thanks to you - that I also have a hyperlordosis and I crane my neck so often and now my hip joint is not happy when I do even simple stuff.
THANK YOU SO MUCH AGAIN for how to fix it.
YOU ARE SO WONDERFUL and I am so happy to meet you!

Best wishes, Anya Muzychka"


Practices For Success In Class

- As soon as you arrive, prepare for class sitting up straight (or lying down flat or standing quietly straight, not slouching). If you sit slouching waiting for class or talking idly, how can you claim yoga gives you good posture and focus? Practice real life health.

- To become positive, happy, and strong, practice that in class. If someone's phone goes off, or we learn something new, don't get hysterical. Practice real life focus.

- Arrive late or leave early if needed, just don't hold up class then complain class isn't starting or ending on time.

- Complain complain and call that yoga?

- Ask questions, think, practice adult communication and insight, remember sense of humor, instead of complaining. Then take that with you to real life.

- If you want more or less attention, or have special needs, just ask.

- Unhealthy traditional moves are changed to healthier moves. Be happy. It's yoga, not dogma.

- We warm up first before stretching. Remember, in India it is veddy veddy hot!

- Advise me of medical conditions, to suit class to your needs.

- The pose isn't the point. Keep effort and posture. Slouching and refusing isn't yoga.

- Don't complain or stop because something is hard. Just try. You will improve. Smile.

- Yoga claims to be "mind and body. We use the body. Don't lose your mind.

- When the teacher takes time to make your life better by helping you in class, this answer is healthy and fun - "Thank you teacher." If you don't want to change bad habits, don't get angry. Just say so.

- Enjoy class.

-  No chewing gum.

-  Respect yourself, teacher, and class. Smile.

- It is said that yoga is Mind and Body  This class is physical and we use the body. Don't lose your mind.




Anyone Can Steer The Ship When The Sea Is Calm

It's easy to be calm and focused sitting in a quiet room staring at a candle. What about real life when babies (of all kinds) are screaming and you need to stay safe and in charge? Original yogas and meditations used martial arts techniques of the warriors, using muscles to balance, more muscles to hold the body in position - even when it's hard or you are concentrating on something else, and practice staying diligent and courageous while training the body to live in a strong and capable manner in an uncertain world. Other yogas specialized in certain parts of yoga - to meditate while sitting, or stretch, or breathe as separate activities - but they kept the original claims of making the whole body strong, straight, and focused in difficult circumstances.

The yoga I teach trains thinking, concentration, and body at the same time, to stay strong and focused even in the real world. Once you learn the first few moments of the concept of mediation, the secret is that you are supposed to use it when you stand up. Instead of sitting, we try it standing, then moving. Then you remember to apply it while cleaning the house, raking leaves, and interacting with people. My opinion is that the romance of Zen is for amateurs - it is surviving the daily "nuts and bolts" of life that is the Zen.


About The Teacher

Dr. Jolie Bookspan is a research scientist and injury specialist that Harvard School of Medicine named "The St. Jude of the Joints" for methods to fix pain, even pain thought hopeless. Her training and pain rehab innovations are used by military and top doctors around the world. Yoga instructors, personal trainers, and fitness experts come to her as patients, along with athletes and physicians.

Dr. Bookspan is a 4th degree black belt in karate, former undefeated full-contact Muay Thai boxer, Master Instructor of the Year 2009, and Fellow of the Academy of Wilderness Medicine. She began learning yoga as a child with her Grandmother, certified in several yoga systems around the world, and is a registered yoga teacher (RYT)  above the 500 hour level with over 5000 documented class hours.

Honored with The Humanitarian Award for work in World Community Health. She has written 11 medical textbooks, encyclopedia chapters on science and physiology, and books to change medicine and exercise back to health. Dr. Bookspan studied and taught in India, China, Nepal, Thailand, Japan, the Netherlands, and North Africa, and brings you their art, medicine, music, and magic


ALT =[“Dr. Jolie Bookspan in India. On Dr. Bookspan's web page of Healthier Yoga -]
In India



What Students Say About Healthier Yoga With Dr. Bookspan


"Dr. Bookspan teaches us ways to exercise and live daily without doing harmful things to our bodies, not just do poses. Take this class. It will positively affect your thinking and change your life."
- Lily Stepnowski


"You are a wonderful instructor, teacher, mentor
and have the rare ability to make people feel that the magic IS inside, not worn around the neck."
- Stuart Wood


"The class is very physical and the best exercise I have done.
You accomplish something that you thought you couldn't."
- Jon Aguila, Architect


"The class made me think and learn to control my actions. To be able to concentrate in a crazy world. This class is the best thing you can do for yourself. I will take more classes."
- David Stockett


"Dr. Bookspan's Yoga is an "attitude" without one."
- Alane M. Salvatore


"Dr. Bookspan's class is the best thing I have ever done for myself.
She knows how to encourage people to challenge themselves,
and has an infectiously positive/optimistic attitude - unlike any yoga teacher I have ever encountered. The class challenged me and showed me that I can push my body (gently) in ways I never thought possible. I was amazed at the moves/poses I was able to do. My life is better Take this class!! If you want to push yourself a little and learn some really great yoga and draw on Jolie's rich experiences and knowledge."
- Geoff Belforti


"The class is more encouraging than others, wonderful, and fun.
Dr. Jolie Bookspan inspires me in many ways. I learned to keep trying and smile."
- Ukari Iesaka


"Dr. Jolie truly cares for all her students, shows it in her daily life,
and knows more about the true purpose and practice of yoga
than any yoga teachers I have encountered in my long life."
- Mr. Sharma, India


"This class has been so amazing in that it has taught me a different kind of yoga.
My job is extremely physically demanding and I have previously been injured on the job and attended physical therapy where I learned how to heal. This class makes me feel like I learned how to not get hurt!!  I found it impressive that I worked so hard and felt so relaxed afterward – and it's not the typical "slow" yoga.  I can't wait for kickboxing. Dr. Bookspan's perspective is fantastic and inspiring."
- Laura Singewald


"We never felt physically better and more in shape, and happier, than when we took Dr. Jolie's classes"
- Juan and Mariu Rico


"I was a yoga teacher more than 20 years
and told my students yoga fixes injuries. However, yoga was paining me greatly- wrists, knees, neck, elbows, back...
After only a class with the Doctor Jolie showed me why and I was already feeling improved.
I learned the smarter technique of yoga and also, what she was saying:
how to use the better way of moving even outside of the class session."
- Kali Rajyana


ALT =[“Students learn Healthier Yoga in Dr.Bookspan's classes. Dr. Bookspan's web page of Healthier Yoga -]




A Success Story From A Reader

On Nov 14, 2012, jdaj jdaj wrote:

"Dear Dr. Bookspan,
"Thank-you for everything that you have done for me, giving me hope and a way to alleviate my pain through functional movement. All the questions I've had regarding movement and posture you have answered, thank-you. I found you after I completed my Yoga Teacher Training and I became bed-ridden. Disk degeneration in my lower back was the cause of my pain and no hope for recovery was the prognosis from the doctor, and then I found you. I've bought many of your amazing books and I've given copies to my family and friends and the local Reading Center has purchased two of your books."




A Success Story From A Patient

On Oct 12, 2014, at 4:31 AM, James Michie wrote: 

"Years of high impact sports and a misspent youth in a gymnasium had left me with persistent knee soreness, lower back pain and a horribly painful shoulder all on my dominant left hand side.

"I'd spent thousands of dollars on physios, chiropractors and 'specialists' who'd injected me with cortisone and pushed me out the door telling me there was not much more they could do. Around this time I discovered yoga and in my usual obsessive way i signed on at a yoga school and practiced 4 hours per day for a year. I'd even had the yoga school's swarmi a 120kg man stand on my back with wooden shoes on and proceed to grind into my back with his wooden heels!

It was real desperation stuff. Surely, I thought, if people had been practicing yoga for thousands of years to cure all sorts of physical ailments then all I had to do was stick to the program and i would be healed. I couldn't understand why my lower back felt worse and my shoulder continued to ache.

"By pure chance, a "Dr Jolie devotee" crossed my path and urged me to look at her web site. That was when the penny dropped. I realized that all these 'traditional' yoga poses: forward bends, shoulder stands, spinal twists had been making things worse not better!

"I was fortunate enough that Dr Jolie agreed to a personal appointment with me and I flew out of my jungle yoga hide away and headed for Philadelphia. I learned that many of the poses that are taught in yoga are working in complete opposition to how the body functions.

"I discovered that I had a considerable forward head tilt and a very tight hip flexor muscle. Dr Jolie taught me healthy yoga techniques; neutral spine, correct my forward head tilt and stretch out my hip flexor muscles effectively, and this made all the difference. Right away. My lower back pain continued to leave me (for the first time in 20 years !) and after a couple of months of remembering to practice holding my head in healthy position, and stretching out my hip flexor muscles using healthy position during my regular walking and activities, my shoulder and knee pain vanished.


"I have been completely pain free for over a year now and feel reborn.
Thank you Dr Jolie your help and guidance has been a life saver."

~ James Michie, Melbourne Australia



Your Successes Featured Here
Send your photos and stories of changing bad yoga to good and I will feature them here with your name and photo rights. Send to - Success

Why Some Yoga Injures, and Healthier Practices to Learn Instead. Read Before Class

A helpful perspective is that yoga is not a bunch of gestures you do, that automatically make you focused and brave and strong and healthy. It is how you deliberately apply them all to your real life, during your real life.

Claims of Strengthening But Not Doing Strengthening

As with many art forms, people often specialize - yoga classes became stretch, or "the breathing" or "mind and body" - omitting (often forgetting entirely) the original purpose - deliberate application to real life (like thinking that being a better person through religion comes from doing a series of gestures inside a room of worship). Some classes focus on "the breathing" thinking it will, in itself, automatically help real life in some way, forgetting that how it works is actually applying it when you stand up and have a real life. The same applies to healthy body position. "Posture" is not a single exercise, or holding in place, but knowledge that you apply when you move in class, move into and out of poses, and even more importantly, when you leave class and have a real life of motion, housework, interaction with family. Not all the yoga styles are good exercise or enough exercise. Most are not enough for strength or cardiovascular health, and a few other key health needs -- remember, they were never intended for that. But the claims of total benefit are retained, even for styles never intended for those paths. More on this in class.


Not All Yoga Poses Were Ever Intended for Joint and Muscle Health

Most important is that not all of the many different kinds and forms of yoga are good for your health. Many developed from reasons having nothing to do with self-benefit or knowledge of your joints. Many poses were intended for penance, austerity, or purification through pain. The word, "sacrifice" comes from the Latin word meaning "to make holy" and there are moves intended to produce pain and sacrifice. That does not mean that pain will make your knee joints holy. Group suffering is often a good seller too. Many standard yoga poses were originally dance moves or war and fighting stances. Many were performance art - contortions to make some coins in the marketplace and to entertain. Dance, like football, is not done for the performers' health. Think of runway models stomping, tilting, and exaggerating their motions. They go to training to walk like that, called "the right way" - which means for their art form, certainly it is not healthy, and often not even attractive to those who know healthy movement. Yoga has many of the same kinds of distorted movements, which came from specific purposes, often changed over time.

These moves were all swept up, without thought, into classes that believe any yoga is only for health, and any move will be healthy no matter how harmful. This is like taking the practice of the priests who beat themselves with nettles for purification and the penitents of the Middle Ages wearing uncomfortable hair shirts, and making that a pop specialty fitness class with all kinds of health and fitness claims and certifications.


I took the above photograph when I studied in India and Nepal. Yoga contortions were well known as performance art. See the outstretched hand? It's not a yoga mudra for enlightenment, unless you mean from the bills and coins he is clutching while asking for more. Viewers had to pay per photo, or for gawking time. The health was from the fun of it for the audience, not from the poses. This pose is also known to jam the femoral head (top of leg bone) into the hip socket, often eventually stripping or tearing hip socket cartilage. Then, upper class people do these poses, thinking it is only for health, and many wind up with hip pain and damage.



What About All The Yoga Props

People buy beads, and bowls, and scarves, and blocks, and mats, and straps, and stones, and special shaped cushions (because it has to be THAT shape), and tapes, and videos, and downloads, and talismans, and feathers, and smoke, and mirrors all to "be simple." People seem to need externals when they feel they have no power or control inside. One or two externals, as reminders, aregood to get the general concept until you can do it yourself.

Why a yoga mat at all? You can exercise any time without one, and often do. You can get a helpful stretch whenever you need on any floor, stair, or pathway. But for yoga, which is often far less exercise or stretch than doing a small bit of regular light exercise, people pay plenty for the mat and think you can't do "real" or "safe" yoga without one. They purchase extra foot and hand mitts with non-slide surfaces rather than use personal muscles and practice of balance and slip control that is needed as a real life skill. People do more complicated moves on ice skates than in yoga, and learn to not slip. People buy gel knee cushions to kneel for moves that would be far healthier, and more realistic stretch and exercise when done off the knees. In one yoga studio I asked students to use their brain and think about a simple idea that a mat is not a NEED, but something you may like and want or be accustomed to, and that's ok, just give thought to so that you are being conscious of your choices and why - that is mindfulness in action. That is how a studio preaching mindfulness and openness and knowledge fired me that day.

Yoga Was Not Always A Peaceful Or Ascetic Practice - And Is Still Not

Years ago Yogi sects murdered each other for power, followers, money, sex, land, and all the usual reasons groups oppose each other. Now in modern times they sue each other, each claiming ownership of the practices they sell (while claiming they do yoga for peace and knowledge for all, and openness and love and sharing), charge enormous sums of money to people who think they will learn how to be simple, and do poses known not for health.


How Yoga Adds To Back Pain, Neck Pain, and Herniated Discs

Specific Moves

Injuries from yoga are not just overuse or doing things wrong. In specific cases, the moves themselves are inherently unhealthy and bad for the joints.

Poses like shoulder stands, plow, rabbit, and others that compress the spine forward are medically documented to put herniating forces on discs in the neck (and promote bone spurs).

Touching toes bent over from a stand or sitting leaning forward make the same herniating forces on lower back discs. Note how many yoga poses you may do in a forward bending position. People rarely need any more forward bending after a day sitting at their desk, sitting to relax, sitting to commute and so on.

Most people have heard it is not healthy to bend over and pick up a package, but will go to gyms and yoga classes and bend over the same way to pick up weights or touch their toes. It is the same bad bending. It is not necessary to do any forward bends to stretch. More is in the STRETCHING SMARTER STRETCHING HEALTHIER article.


Yoga Forward Bends Are Like Bending Over Wrong To Lift Packages

Following is a short summary of how forward bends add to so many injuries. More is in the free DISC Pain article 

Most people know that rounding your back to bend and lift is unhealthy over the long term. Armed with that, they leap to the idea that doing the same bend but with a straight back will prevent problems and be healthy. However, bending over forward with a straight back increases load on the lower spine. The same is true for sitting forward bends - with different forces added for the different joint angles and load distributions of sitting.

ALT =[“Hip hinges are still bad bending. See why on Dr. Bookspan's web page of Healthier Yoga -]


No hip hinges are healthy or functional to bend for regular use.
Please mentally adjust the hip hinge drawing (second from left) to include the several different variations of hip hinges.  I could show the math, but wanted to keep this simple. Use the CONCEPTS, please, and use healthier ways of moving and bending. If you want healthier hamstring stretches, use the Fix Back Pain page and the Hamstring Study Page.



ALT =[“Some yoga bends are injurious to discs. See why on Dr. Bookspan's web page of Healthier Yoga -]



It is sad to see students of yoga classes do all their moves, claim yoga fixes posture, then immediately after class, sit slouched to dress and bend in unhealthy way, missing the point and lesson of learning anything claimed to be posture and health in class. Below are two photos of that problem - strangely common among yoga devotees. This student came to my class for the first time having done years of yoga elsewhere, stating she believed yoga fixes her posture, listened (impatiently) to all I explained and repeated about using healthy position for real life, how important it is, and to be aware...) then refused to actually use healthy posture during the poses in class, and did the following after class:

Immediately after my entire yoga class devoted to teaching how to apply healthier positioning to all you do, the student in the above photograph is slouching and sitting badly to put on her shoes.


In the photo below, here is how this student bent to get her things - with unhealthy back and foot positioning - after an hour of my teaching not to do that, why not, and better ways to use instead.



Yoga And Swayback - Don't Practice and Reinforce It In Your Poses

Below is an example of overdoing the inner curve of the lower spine during warrior pose. It is not a healthy curve. The same pose gives a far better stretch for the hip when you use neutral spine instead of swayback. In neutral spine, the pelvis does not tip forward and the lumbar curve is small.


Below is a short mpeg video of how to change overarched (hyperlordotic) lower spine (swayback) to neutral for lunge and warrior poses:

If the above video does not load on your device, try from my Flickr page:

Note that in this video, my student, David does not change hip position fully, along with reducing lumbar curve, meaning that the pelvis does not change position from tilted to vertical. Learn to move your lower back AND pelvis, both, for best stretch and neutral spine. He also does not bring arms to vertical, but keeps them forward which reduces shoulder stretch. More neutral spine description and role in stopping back pain from hyperlordosis on the Abs Page.

Use Neutral Spine in Chair Poses

Don't overarch the lower spine inward, or push the hip and backside far out in back when doing Utkatasana or mighty pose, which is just standing and bending knees until in a sitting position. Use my Neutral Spine page on this site to learn and practice. Use neutral spine instead of overly-arched to practice movement the way it is needed all day for real life. Make yoga something that benefits your real life movement habits, not trains artificial, unhealthy motion you don't even need.



Yoga and Back Spasm and TIghtness

Yoga is often prescribed for back pain, however many common poses and practices are causes of pain. There are common descriptions of people who bent over forward or sideways for their poses and suddenly felt their back seize up in spasm (or had it creep up soon after). Sometimes the same poses are mistaken for cures. Here is how to tell more for yourself:

Back spasm and tightness can often be quickly relieved with specific brief stretches that directly lengthen specific muscle(s) in line with how they are shortened in spasm. Unfortunately, sometimes a stretch that should be used only on the rare occasions needed to take out a lumbar spasm is mistaken for something to do daily - like forward bending stretches, which when done all the time, cause their own kind of  back pain (explained above and in the Disc Pain article). Yoga Triangles and twists are more examples. When used for a brief stretch - meaning two to three seconds at most -  and not forced too far, can give a nice range of motion, give a brief healthy spongy movement to the discs. If a spasm is along that specific side area, then a brief 2-4 second Triangle (simple side bend, no yoga classes needed) or specific direct gentle twist, if done right and specifically along the position needed could release it - used as a one or two-time application. When Yoga Triangle and twist poses are regularly done and maintained static for the long periods of time held in many classes, they put sheer force on the discs (a large component to herniation) and restrict circulation. Regular long side bends, forward bending, twists, and triangles are not needed or healthy.

If you continually go back to bad habits that make pain return, and claim you have to do yoga every day to fix it, then your yoga is not fixing the causes. It may even be the cause. See the Fix Back Pain article, the Fix Disc Pain article, and the Fix Back Pain Felt From Standing, Walking Running (S.I. Facet, and spondy pain) for more.


Knee Pain From Yoga

Just as with back and neck pain, knee Injuries from yoga are not merely overuse or doing things wrong. In specific cases, the moves themselves are inherently unhealthy for the joints.

Several yoga poses directly twist, overstretch, or pinch knee cartilage. Over time, injury builds that may not show as much in people who do yoga and little else, until their knees encounter resisted motion for walking, running, or sports, or from a trip or fall.

Not long ago, people in yoga or sports did not intersect much. Now, the previously more sedentary yoga populations try running, aerobics, and sports. Athletes are being told that yoga will give them magic benefits. Knee injuries bloom when they go back to sports, making the staunch yoga camps claim sports are the culprit, when it was the knee damaging motions in yoga and other stretches.

The knee is a primarily a hinge joint, like the hinge on a door that is supposed to move only to open and close. The door swings toward you and away. If you lift upward on the door, it pulls and twists the hinge. Do this often, and you will loosen it. The door begins to creak and rub and make noise. Think of sitting cross-legged (tailor style). Your lower legs face towards you and your knees face away. All is fine at that point. Now picture, as with lifting upward on a door, you lift the foot and lower leg to rest it on your thigh in Lotus position, or lift it in some pigeon poses as in the photo later below. Unless you rotate the upper leg fully at the hip, the knee pulls upward and twists, overstretching the lateral (outside) ligament and pinching the medial meniscus and soft tissue.

How to picture rotation at the hip joint instead of twisting the knee joint? Think of a stapler. Like the door just mentioned, the stapler has a hinge like a knee joining two sections, like your upper and lower leg. It opens and closes on that knee hinge. If you pull the upper or lower part sideways, it twists or shears the hinge. To get the stapler to move or face sideways, you need to turn (rotate) the whole thing.

Thank you for stapler clipart.



Notice ankles too - Often people bend the ankle upwards too, instead of getting the stretch from the hip, as pictured below. Making the sides of the ankle loose like that makes the ankles subject to several problems including predisposition to sprains because you created excess length in ligaments which are supposed to prevent the ankle from bending at the side that much. More about this bad habit for the ankle, and how to fix it, is on the Bookspan Basics page.

Thank you Word Freak for photo


Hero pose, (Supta Virasana) begins sitting on bent knees, meditation style, which often is fine. The knee hinge swings like closing a door, normal bending. Then you pull the feet outside of the upper legs, like pulling upward on the door hinge. If you do not inwardly rotate both upper legs at the hip fully, your knee twists at the hinge, overstretching the medial (inside) ligament, pinching the lateral meniscus and soft tissue. In "W" sitting, both feet face outward. Not a problem for the knee unless the hips do not fully rotate (whether relentless W sitting is eventually is too much at the hip is a separate question).. Runner's hurdler stretch is the same issue, one leg at a time.

Even though yoga may call for "doing both sides" and following each motion in one direction with one in the other, twisting both the medial and lateral sides of the knee cartilage by doing both Lotus and Hero will not cancel each other, but can overstretch and degenerate both sides.

Thank you for Hero photo to:


Warrior poses 1 and 2 are like a lunge. Check your front knee. Is it inside the line of your foot? Do your foot and knee face the same direction?

Sagging inward unequally loads the knee and when the foot and knee face differently, the knee twists under body weigh. Keep your knee above your foot. Although common to do warrior pose with the back foot turned outward (as in the photo) it is better stretch and function training, and also better for the knees to keep both facing directly forward.

For the shoulder, a common injury accumulates from warrior poses when the person keeps upper spine and shoulders rounded or forward when lifting the arms. The rotator cuff gets crushed between the arm and shoulder bones. For the lower back, it is common to increase the inward curve of the lower spine when raising the arms. These people think they are reaching overhead when they are only leaning backwards and their shoulders are not getting much stretch at all, or are getting crushed. How to fix shoulders and lower back during yoga is covered in my books and articles, and in my classes.

Thank you yogainternational for photo



Mighty Chair pose (or chair pose) - This pose is just standing and bending knees until in a sitting position. It is mild effort for the thighs, not as much as if you did actual good bending throughout the day, or squats. It is not valuable for any functional motion. It is often overly-stylized into an highly artificial position that takes the health out of it for the joints. Remember that it originated as an art form, not for health or learning how to hold your body in any healthy position or training how to sit in a healthy way Often people bring the knees far forward of the feet in order to make balance easier. They may allow knees to sway inward. They may face knees in different direction than the feet, making a twisting at the joint. Often people raise arms overhead with the body tilted forward, compressing the rotator cuff, and practicing poor upper body placement (see the Fix Neck Pain article). These are all ways of taking a move that does not have to be bad and making it unhealthy. At best, it is little exercise. To get a real and built-in exercise instead of straining in chair pose a few moments a week, use healthy half squats (described on the Fix Knee Pain page) for daily bending and get hundreds of healthy bends built-in your day.


Hindu Squats and one-legged heel-up deep bends may not twist the knee as much as pry it. Picture a tool to crack nuts - two handles joined at a hinge, like your upper and lower leg joined at the knee. Put an object (for example, a soccer ball) between the upper and lower leg and try to close the heel toward the upper leg - if the ball does not compress, the hinge (knee) pries open. That happens with low squats on the toes (heels up) if you have large or heavy legs. If you have slender legs, the heels can come closely, like bending your elbow so that your lower arm rests along your upper arm. Slender legs do this, while muscular athletes and large people may leave knee joints vulnerable to injury.


It is fine to modify the pigeon pose if you just want to sit a bit to the side as pictured below, instead of keeping the back knee and leg rotated to face straight downward. Sitting to the side greatly reduces the stretch, especially to the rear hip's front muscles that need the stretch, but usually no big problem to the knee. When the pose continues to lift the back foot and lower leg for King Pigeon, if you lift the foot up without facing the knee downward, you twist the knee joint.

Keep the whole rear leg turned downward. You get a better anterior hip stretch, and when you lift the foot, the knee can bend like a hinge, not twist.

Thank you for pigeon photo


One Legged King Pigeon kneels on the rear knee with that knee bent so only the kneecap bears your weight. A healthier way to do this and get a better stretch for your hip, is to move your back leg further back so that weight rests on your lower thigh, not kneecap. This change also gives a better stretch.


Why Are Poses That Are Bad For Knees Taught?

I have taken several yoga teacher certifications. Each gives different, plausible-sounding rationale why knee twist poses help, but the anatomy is just off enough to come to wrong conclusions. In one, they taught to deliberately twist the lower leg on the upper "to protect the meniscus." Twisting does not protect, but twist in a damaging way. There are two bones in the lower leg, allowing some rotation, but twisting injures other structures. Another teacher training stressed extreme knee twisting as a stretch in itself, stating that any increase in motion is beneficial, especially from joints. Knee laxity results. Without much muscle and positioning training, you predispose yourself to instability when giving the knee challenge, like going back to sports, or from a fall or blow. Another certification teacher training taught that knee twisting is beneficial since it allows great range of motion in case you fall down with your knee twisted backward. Sounds plausible for that one fall (unless you fall differently), but for every other day in your life, extra space can allow the joint to 'rattle' and rub and wear prematurely. In another class we were made to sit in Lotus, then, still folded in Lotus, rise to knees and swivel from knee to knee to waddle around the room, compounding damage from putting body weight on the twisted strained joints.

In each yoga teacher training and class I take, I hear teachers tell about their knee pain and surgeries. They don't know why. They think they need more yoga and do more injurious poses, getting relief or distraction for the moment, then pain comes back. Movement in general often relieves pain for the moment. No need to repeatedly add injury to get temporary relief. Stop the causes and the pain stops.

There are assertions that many people do these stretches and not everyone gets knee pain, so they must be fine. Smoking and unsafe sex also do not have a one-to-one association with immediately bad consequences every time. Some stretches and movements twist the knee and overstretch cartilage. If you do these poses and have pain, it is one place to think about.

More. There are several more yoga poses with these and other problems for knees. I will keep adding when I can. For more about fixing knee pain, see the Fix Knee Pain page.



"Send a fool to pray to God - he will bruise his forehead"
~ Russian Proverb



Transfer Healthful Movement Mechanics Learned in Class for Daily Life

Sit and Rise Without Your Hands
"Quick and Easy Strength and Balance Exercise." See more about balance in real life movement on the Functional Fitness Page, where I also put the video for this.


Daily Movement Habits
Good bending and balancing is not only for poses, but all life. Use the poses to practice them, but use good bending and balancing for real the rest of the day, obviously. See many photos of about and good bending during real life movement and housework on the Functional Fitness As A Lifestyle Page.

One Legged Balance Stance with Crossed Leg
I called it "putting on shoe" In yoga it has many names including "half chair" and "standing ankle to knee" "standing pigeon" "flamingo pose" and others. Read - Ancient Shoe Exercise for Hip Stretch and Balance on the Fitness as a LIfestyle page. There is also a video. Understand that being able to stand and dress yourself is a bare minimum baseline health skill. It makes no sense to pay for yoga classes, get changed to go to yoga classes, and do yoga poses of the same skill, yet not be able to dress yourself for real.

Below is our friend Joe Blatt demonstrating balance and posterior hip stretch with the "Shoe Stretch." He is not leaning against the door. I know because I took this photo myself:

Get built-in balance and stretch for the posterior hip every day by dressing yourself using the "shoe stretch"



Class Outlines

I had originally created an extensive individual class syllabus. For each class, I provided free movies, readings, concepts, stories. I had uploaded them to my Fitness Fixer column, which ran on Healthline from 2006 to 2010. After they ended my column, they were supposed to keep the articles, but they removed almost all of them, and replaced mine with their own articles that sell their products.

I found this BlogSpot archive that still has some of the articles, and allows a search to group topics together on one page. Try here for some of my yoga articles:


Class 1 Short Readings:
- Not all yoga moves are needed all the time. Not all were intended to be for health. Avoid dogmatic application of yoga with Getting the Right Yoga Medicine.

- Focus doesn't mean staring at a candle. Some info on focus, the seventh limb of Ashtanga Yoga, for real daily life: Which Ancient Exercise Gives Focus and Concentration? (Healthline took this one down. It is now on my Emotional Health page).


Class 1 Healthier Stretching:
- Here is why we don't stretch hamstrings by bending over: Sitting Badly Isn't Magically Healthy by Calling It a Hamstring Stretch.
(Healthline took this one down. It is now on my Hamstrings page).

- The same goes for standing bent over to touch toes. Here is a healthier, more effective, functional hamstring stretch instead: Healthier Hamstring Stretching. (Healthline took this one down. It is now on my Hamstrings page).

- I did studies that found no relation between hamstring flexibility and lower back pain - click to see why it is so often mistakenly prescribed for back pain.


Class 1 Textbook Reading:
Stretching Smarter Stretching Healthier
: Introduction page 8. Overstretching Bad Habits In Daily LIfe 87-98. Hamstring 28-34. Lower Back 58.

Health & FItness THIRD edition: Preface page 8, Why Should You Be Active pages 10-19, Making Bad Exercises Into Good Movement 97-125, Getting Out of Shape and How To Avoid it 133-137.

Healthy Martial Arts: Forward, Introduction, Lifestyle, to page 8. Flexibility 60-101.


cartoon by vashdesigns
The Tin Man takes a yoga class to loosen up. Published August 29, 2012
Thank you to success story Julie Ballinger for sending.



"The Blind Men and the Elephant" is a poem by American poet John Godfrey Saxe (1816-1887) based on a fable from India. School children used to learn it to understand how people, even whole countries come to blows, not over truth, but their own limited viewpoint:

It was six men of Indostan
To learning much inclined,
Who went to see the Elephant
(Though all of them were blind),
That each by observation
Might satisfy his mind

The First approached the Elephant,
And happening to fall
Against his broad and sturdy side,
At once began to bawl:
"God bless me! but the Elephant
Is very like a wall!"

The Second, feeling of the tusk,
Cried, "Ho! what have we here
So very round and smooth and sharp?
To me 'tis mighty clear
This wonder of an Elephant
Is very like a spear!"

The Third approached the animal,
And happening to take
The squirming trunk within his hands,
Thus boldly up and spake:
"I see," quoth he, "the Elephant
Is very like a snake!"

The Fourth reached out an eager hand,
And felt about the knee.
"What most this wondrous beast is like
Is mighty plain," quoth he;
" 'Tis clear enough the Elephant
Is very like a tree!"

The Fifth, who chanced to touch the ear,
Said: "E'en the blindest man
Can tell what this resembles most;
Deny the fact who can
This marvel of an Elephant
Is very like a fan!"

The Sixth no sooner had begun
About the beast to grope,
Than, seizing on the swinging tail
That fell within his scope,
"I see," quoth he, "the Elephant
Is very like a rope!"

And so these men of Indostan
Disputed loud and long,
Each in his own opinion
Exceeding stiff and strong,
Though each was partly in the right,
And all were in the wrong!

So oft in theologic wars,
The disputants, I ween,
Rail on in utter ignorance
Of what each other mean,
And prate about an Elephant
Not one of them has seen!

Problems come when people insist that yoga is the total "heal-all" or that it provides health and focus and discipline and exercise, forgetting that their form of yoga is only part of the whole, and that many of the yoga styles were never intended for that one result, let alone all results.

Little modern yoginis wearing expensive yoga clothes printed with cliches of love and openness get angry and superior at others who don't "know" yoga - when theirs is another part, not the one they learned. Think how often people and countries come to blows over the same.



For Class 2:

Class 2 Short Readings:
"Unhealthy Yoga Ankles" and "Knee Pain When Running - Check Your Yoga."
(Healthline took these down. Check the BlogSpot archives for ankles and this one for knees, or see my Fix Pain movies about this on the Patient Success page).

Class 2 Healthier Stretching:
Fast Fitness - Don't Shorten Hip When Stretching Hamstring. (
Healthline took these down. Check the BlogSpot archives for hip and hip strength -

Class 2 Healthier Ankle positioning information:
Fast Fitness - Sprain Prevention and Rehab Training. (Healthline took these down. Check the BlogSpot archives for ankles)

Class 2 Short Fun Movie to Watch:
Remember that using strength and moving the body is wonderful, and if you feel effort, that's the idea.

I teach many of the moves in the following video in my yoga and other classes. Beginners can start learning them with me with good success, if they work and try. I have had yoga instructors who come my classes, curse and storm out at the first effort, whining that it is effort. They claim yoga makes them strong and loving, then throw tantrums, but that is for another story. Watch this short video to see children do some of the moves we do:

Class 2 Textbook Reading:
Stretching Smarter Stretching Healthier
: Achilles Tendon 12-17. Sitting 18, 23-24. Daily Life as Stretching 103-104.

Health & FItness THIRD edition: Innovations in Stretching 55-70, You Don't Need A Gym For Real Fitness-Fitness As A Lifestyle 82-96.

Healthy Martial Arts: Abdomen and Core 43-59. Prevent Injuries 162-196


Class Two Mind Set Uplift:
Reset your goals and never complain my class is hard again:

If video does not load, try -


For Class 3:

Class 3 Short Readings for Healthier Yoga:
"Fast Fitness - Prevent Wrist Pain During Pushups and Cooking," and "Knee Pain When Running - Check Your Yoga." It looks like Healthline took these down. Check the BlogSpot archives for wrists and this one for knees, or see my Fix Pain movies about this on the Patient Success page).

Class 3 Textbook Reading:
Stretching Smarter Stretching Healthier
: Warrior balance 36-37. Downward Dog 14, Shoulder 61-63. Neck 71-74. Cobra 75. Leg 18-20. Ankle and Hip 25-27.

Health & FItness THIRD edition: Exercise Gimmicks 38-40, Abdominal Muscles-What They Do May Surprise You 71-81.

Healthy Martial Arts: Healthy Mind 123-127, Spirit 128-141, Breathing 142-144.

Class Three Mind Set Uplift:
Does yoga give you love and acceptance and peace and good posture, and cure all injuries?
Try "Air Pushups." I found that Healthline took down this fun article. I put most of it back on my web page about Fitness as a Lifestyle. Check for it there.



For All Classes - Healthier Poses and Stopping Poses that Harm (Ritualized injury)


If you are doing yoga to exalt to deities, to do penance, for purposes of causing pain to purify or remember earthly and heavenly purposes, then poses that injure the body are understandable. Not all poses were intended to be for health. If you try yoga poses for health, isn't it foolish to use the unhealthful ones? 

Then there are many poses that would be fine, but are done in unhealthful, injurious ways. The following can be good for you when you understand and use healthful positioning:

Textbook Readings - Stretching Smarter Stretching Healthier: Handstand stretch 40. Warrior balance 36-37. Yoga on the ball 28-39. Downward Dog 14. Boat 76. Face 84.



The short gif below shows fixing swayback to neutral spine for planks and push-ups. This is my first try at making gifs. Let me know if it does not run automatically. It may take a moment to load:

You can see this movie and others on my Flickr Account:



Readings below were from my column The Fitness Fixer which ran on from 2006 to 2010. When the company ended my column they first removed all my movies, all comments, and the accompanying illustrations and photos. Then they removed the articles. Come to class for the information and graphics

Warrior 3 or Virabhadrasana III
Stand on one foot, stretch arms forward and one leg lifted back
"Fast Fitness - Stronger, Straighter Upper Back with a better Warrior 3" - Healthline removed this one.

Plank, Chaturanga Pose, 4 Legged Staff Pose - holding a pushup position
Fast Fitness - Strengthen by Changing Your Plank - Healthline removed this one.

Plank, Chaturanga lifting one arm and leg, 2 Legged Staff Pose
"Abdominal Muscle Exercise - Better, Different, Not What You Think" - Healthline removed this article. See how abdominal are supposed to work during real life on my page for Abdominal Muscles and Spine Position.



Mighty Chair Pose
Instead of artificial, over-stylized chair pose, we use simple half-squat for good bending as a functional daily lifestyle action to strengthen legs, stretch achilles tendon, and avoid bad forward bending that degenerates lumbar discs:

- Free Exercise and Free Back and Knee Pain Prevention

- Healthy Bending and and Knee Pain When Running, Check Your Yoga.

- How Often Should You Be Healthy?

Healthline removed the above articles. Come to class, or read the Functional Fitness page for these concepts.



Nice toe stretches when sitting in Seiza

Healthy Toe Stretches



How To Start with an Easy Handstand or Adho Mukha Vrksasana (means Downward Facing Tree Pose)

Description used to be in my articles - "Quick and Fun Arm and Body Strengthener" and another helpful article on ekapada, or one leg stretch - "Leg Stretch that Strengthens Arms." Healthline removed these.

Try my Blogspot Yoga archive -

and the Blogspot archive of FItness Fixers on Handstands -

Even better - try my Fitness as a Lifestyle page and scroll down to the Handstand section. Descriptions, drawings, and short movies.


    Here is a short movie where my student Dennis demonstrates an easy step up to wall handstand PLUS, changing swayback lumbar spine to neutral spine:

    If this short movie doesn't load or show up on your device, click the link below to see it on my Flickr Account:


    In the first few seconds, my student Dennis steps each foot back and up onto the wall

The red arrows and frown show where he allows swayback lower spine. Swayback causes spine joint compression and shows lack of abs use,

The green arrows and smile show the change in spine and hip position to neutral spine. Healthier for spine, more exercise.

Thank you Steve Kramer PhotoEnvisions (  for arrows and faces indicating teaching points.



Prevent Yoga Injuries - Learn These for All Classes

  • Prevent wrist pain and compression during Chaturanga - "Fast Fitness - Prevent Wrist Pain During Pushups and Cooking"

  • Spot and fix the commonest mistake that stresses the lower spine in handstand - "Fast Fitness - Fixing Your Handstand to Neutral Spine."

  • Watch for this mistake in ankle positioning in Sukhasana or easy sitting pose, Padmasana or Lotus pose, and Baddha Konasana bound angle cobbler's pose - "Unhealthy Yoga Ankles."

  • Why we use other stretches and not Pascimottananasana which translates as "back extension" stretch, although anatomically it is back flexion, or forward bending while sitting with legs straight in front - "Sitting Badly Isn't Magically Healthy by Calling it a Hamstring Stretch."

  • Explanation of why Pascimottananasana pose injures the vertebral discs whether it is done with straight or rounded back - "Disc Pain, Not A Mystery, Easy To Fix."

  • Watch for this lower spine injury in yoga - Photos and understanding of a common slouch and why it hurts - Prevent Back Surgery.

  • Textbook - Stretching Smarter Stretching Healthier: Shoulder 61-63. Neck 71-74. Cobra 75. Leg 18-20. Ankle and Hip 25-27. Stretches That Make You Tighter 85-86


Fitness Fixer Readings For All Classes




Emotional and Mental Fitness Training For All Classes
Mental & Emotional Training - a page of my short articles for stronger emotional health.



Healthy Nutrition

Click the Nutrition page for quick helpful information about many needed components of Healthier Nutrition.


"Talk doesn't cook rice."
-- Chinese proverb. Get to class!



Class Updates
Follow TheFitnessFixer on Twitter
Get instant updates about classes, new projects, Fitness Fixes, and other. Short and easy on my Twitter:


Karma Yoga Through Sharing



Karma Yoga Through Doing

Join projects for health of one and all - Projects.




Dr. Bookspan's Yoga Classes and Students


Vibrant, happy, physical. We learn to focus and breath *while* you move, instead of one at a time.



and the net will appear
- Zen Saying


Koundinyasana B or Aka Eka Pada Koundinyasana


Double Viparita Dandasana B

Asanas (poses) go by many names. Founders differed with each other; disciples disagreed what their teachers said
Different people like different names.


To Be Injury and Pain-Free
  • All techniques in this class are intended to decrease injury potential and improve function starting as soon as you begin using them.
  • You should feel effort and exercise in your muscles during and after class, but no strain, twisting, or pain to joints. If something hurts, you may not be positioning yourself properly. Check with Dr. Bookspan.
  • Do not do anything that increases joint pain or injury potential.
  • Pain may occur if you use bad positioning habits and exercises that strain muscles and put joints into unhealthy positioning. Don't do that.
  • Keep healthy common sense and use your brain.
  • Practice until healthy motion becomes natural and the way you move for all daily life.
  • For specific topics, for example, herniated discs, knee injury, or neck pain, see free summaries on my Sports Medicine Office page, and check the Fitness Fixer index for almost 800 topics and short articles.
  • Ask questions.
  • Enjoy improving your mind and body. Smile. Relax. Breathe.
  • Schedule private appointment, if needed.



With Dr. Bookspan
Certification for various yoga levels and Instructor training may be earned by top students through guided study with Dr. Bookspan. Information to get started is on the Class page Yoga section.



Class books available at discount for class participants. Or order through the links below:

Stretching Smarter Stretching Healthier

Fix Your Own Pain - Without Drugs or Surgery

The Ab Revolution No More Crunches No More Back Pain
New FOURTH edition. Revolutionary core training method to restore neutral spine- No forward bending which unevenly pressures discs. Used by military, law enforcement, and the nation's top spine docs.

Health & Fitness in Plain English, Third edition - how to be healthy, happy, and fit for the rest of your life. How to fix pain, plus nutrition, diabetes, cholesterol, heart, blood bone health, more.

Healthy Martial Arts
Not just for martial artists, but everyone who wants to move and live in healthy ways.




Eka Pada Bakasana A
or Eka Pada Galavasana -- Eka = one, Pada = foot. The sage Galava was a pupil of Vasishta.


Bound Utthita Trivikramasana (Utthita means extended)

Fix Pain Summaries
on This Web Site To Learn Healthy Movement
and Avoid Yoga Injuries

Stretching and Flexibility for Real Life
Stretch the way you really need for real life and to feel better, starting right now

Fix Your Own Neck Pain
Change the cause and quickly stop the pain.

Inspiring Patient Stories
How real students and patients fixed their own life-long injuries using Dr. Jolie Bookspan's sports medicine techniques.

Bad Exercises and Ones To Do Instead
How to spot harmful and helpful exercises for your back

Bad Discs and Sciatica
Learn about disc degeneration, herniation, and sciatica, and what to do to fix them yourself

Fix Your Own Knee Pain
Simple, often overlooked ways to stop knee pain and injury

Fix Chronic Lower Back Pain (Standing/ Walking/ Running)
One major overlooked problem and exactly how to stop the pain right away.

How readers fixed their injuries - Patient Success Stories.


Natarajasana A - (Two hands) Nata means dance or dancer, The names comes from "Raja" which means king.
The pose is dedicated to Shiva, King of dancers.


I found that it's not romantic to do stretch and yoga on the rocks, it's pointy.



If this information fixes your pain, send it to a friend (the article, not the pain) with full reference and citation.

SocialTwist Tell-a-Friend


Don't worry about people stealing your ideas.
If your ideas are any good, you'll have to ram them down people's throats.
- Howard Aiken


Back To Top of Page

That said, Be Healthy - Respect Copyright

This page is © copyright and here as a benefit to the world. Information, drawings, and photos are © protected copyright. To cite this article or any parts, put author Dr. Bookspan, and link to this site at the top and bottom of your reprinting. A suggestion to get my books is also nice. No Derivative Works License means no changes to content, wording or links

Drawings of Backman!™ copyright Dr. Jolie Bookspan from the book The Ab Revolution™ No More Crunches No More Back Pain

More LEGAL Waivers and Reprint Info.

Entire site is education only. Nothing is medical advice. See your doctor first and use your brain


Back to All Classes

Go To The HOME page